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Principle of household detergent

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The main component of the detergent is a surfactant, and the surfactant is an organic compound having a hydrophilic group and a lipophilic group in a molecular structure.

The main component of the detergent is a surfactant, and the surfactant is an organic compound having a hydrophilic group and a lipophilic group in a molecular structure. Surfactants are mainly anionic, cationic and nonionic.


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When the soap is dissolved in water, on the surface of the water, the hydrophilic carboxyl portion of the soap molecule tends to enter the water molecule, while the hydrocarbyl portion of the hydrophobic water is repelled outside the water to form oriented soap molecules. When the concentration of soap in the water gradually increases, the soap molecules accumulated on the surface of the water gradually increase to form a monomolecular layer. When the concentration of the soap continues to increase, since the surface of the water is already filled, the hydrophobic hydrocarbon groups in the soap molecules inside the aqueous solution begin to gather together by the intermolecular force, and the hydrophilic carboxyl group is wrapped outside, and the whole is spherical. Forming aggregated particles of colloidal size.


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When washing the laundry, the hydrocarbyl portion of the hydrophobic molecule in the soap molecule dissolves into the oil, while the hydrophilic carboxyl portion extends into the water outside the oil, and the oil is surrounded by soap molecules to form a stable emulsion. By mechanical sputum and water scouring, oil and other contaminants are dispersed from the deposits into smaller opaque droplets that enter the water and leave with water rinsing. This is a common decontamination principle of modern detergents.


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The main component of soap is sodium fatty acid, which is produced by the saponification reaction of natural oils. It has strong detergency, good biodegradability, no toxic side effects on the human body, and no pollution to the environment. If you wash underwear and baby clothes, it is best to choose soap. Another benefit of soap is that it can be spotted for some dirt. The disadvantage of soap is that it reacts with calcium and magnesium ions in hard water to form scum, which adheres to the clothes and causes the laundry to be kneaded.

Washing powder is an alkaline synthetic washing powder with strong detergency, good solubility and easy to use. It is superior in hard water and foam, and it is cheaper. It is a cost-effective laundry detergent. . Washing powder is more suitable for washing cotton, linen, chemical fiber and blended fabrics. It is not suitable for washing wool, silk and other clothing. Because wool, silk and other clothing contain protein, and the washing powder is alkaline, it will damage the clothes. The washing effect of washing powder in warm water is better than that of cold water, and it dissolves evenly in warm water, and surfactant can exert more effect. There are a lot of washing powder on the external label indicating the words "add enzyme" or "machine wash", which indicates that the product is added with alkaline protease, lipase, amylase and other ingredients. These ingredients are effective in removing protein or fat and cosmetic stains from stains such as sweat, milk and blood, but also decompose protein and fat on the skin surface. Therefore, often washing these clothes with these washing powders may cause allergic dermatitis and eczema, causing rough and chapped hands. If the washing is not clean, it may easily irritate the skin and cause dermatitis. The washing water temperature should be controlled at about 40 °C with the enzyme washing powder. The blister washing powder above 60 °C should not be used to avoid the enzyme preparation losing activity and affecting the decontamination effect. Enzyme washing powder can also not be used to wash wool and silk protein fiber-containing fabrics because enzymes can destroy protein fiber structure.

Sodium polyacrylate is a new type of functional polymer material and an important chemical product. The solid product is white (or light yellow) block or powder, and the liquid product is a colorless (or light yellow) viscous liquid. Stable to temperature changes, with the role of fixed metal ions, can prevent the negative effects of metal ions on the product, is a highly efficient detergent builder with a variety of special properties.

As the use of detergent additives, there are mainly the following characteristics:

1. Improve the fluidity of the detergent slurry, so that the slurry of the detergent can maintain good dispersion and uniformity. Reduce the viscosity of the detergent slurry, improve the mixing efficiency and pumping capacity of the equipment, thereby improving production efficiency;

2. Improve the apparent performance of the detergent powder, so that the sprayed detergent particles are uniform and the overall whiteness is improved. At the same time, it can minimize the fine powder and increase the particle strength during the dusting process;

3. Improve the ability of soil removal, excellent calcium and magnesium ion chelating ability, solid particle dispersion and suspension capacity, can significantly improve the detergent removal ability of detergent.

4. Improve the ash deposition resistance of the detergent. The excellent dispersion and suspension capacity of the solid particles can effectively prevent the deposition of other types of sedimentable substances on the fabric and improve the ash deposition resistance of the detergent.

5. Improve the anti-soil redeposition ability of the detergent, effectively prevent the accumulation of dirt, so that the dirt is dispersed and suspended in the washing liquid, and at the same time acts on the surface of the fabric to increase the repulsion between the dirt and the fabric, and effectively inhibit the dirt. Redeposition.